Sage Notes, Spring 2000, Vol 22(2) Newsletter of the Idaho Native Plant Society

Authors of Sage Notes articles have given their permission for reproducing their work on-line. To use their material for educational and personal use, please cite the original author or illustrator and the issue of Sage Notes. Commercial use is not permitted without permission from Sage Notes Editor, Idaho Native Plant Society, PO Box 9451, Boise, ID 83707.

Articles in Sage Notes reflect the views of the authors and are not an official position of the Idaho Native Plant Society.

In this issue...
Exciting New Career for Bob Moseley, A letter from Bob Moseley
Botanical Products Committee Formed, Kristin Fletcher
Douglas’ clover (Trifolium douglasii) Receives Formal Status in Idaho, Mike Hays
Annie Alexander, Kristin Fletcher
Attitudes of an Early Botanist: A Note on Charles Geyer (1809-1853), Bertie Weddell
Response to the Native Gardening Questionnaire
Anthriscus cacaulis (Bur Chervil) Replacing Star-thistle, Dr. Richard R. Old
The Genus Cypripedium, Book Review by Mike Hays
A Color Guidebook to Common Rocky Mountain Lichens, Book Review by Roger Rosentreter
Calypso Chapter Chapter News
Kinnikinnick Chapter Chapter News
Sah-Wah-Be Chapter Chapter News
Wood River Chapter Chapter News
News and Notes

Exciting New Career for Bob Moseley

Dear Friends,

After nearly 12 years at the Idaho Conservation Data Center, I’m leaving and returning to a former employer, The Nature Conservancy. And, after 24 years exploring the ecology and botany of Idaho, I’m heading off to explore another exciting place for a while. March 28 will be my last day working for Idaho Fish and Game. Around April 7, I’ll be headed across the Pacific to be a Senior Ecologist with the Conservancy’s Yunnan Great Rivers Project in southern China. I spent a month in China last January working on the project and am excited to be able to continue. At first we’ll be assisting the provincial government to design a system of biodiversity conservation areas for northwestern Yunnan. Then we’ll work on developing more localized conservation plans for a couple of pilot areas identified during the first phase.

The project area encompasses the eastern end of the Himalayas in northwest Yunnan. It’s traversed by three of the world’s great rivers, the Yangtze, Mekong, and Salween, which cut three parallel canyons as they drop off the Tibetan Plateau. The canyons are often 8,000 to 10,000 feet deep. Sometimes more! Quite a few peaks are above 16,000 feet and several are above 20. Overlying this remarkable landscape is the most biologically diverse temperate ecosystem on earth, as well as seven ethnic minorities, most notably the Tibetans. It’s the intersection of biodiversity and cultural diversity conservation that makes this project so exciting.

I always wondered what I’d do after working in Idaho for so long, exploring the best places in the state. It’s probably not too surprising to most of you that I’d shift my attention as a conservation biologist from the Northern Rockies to the greatest mountain range in the world. And I’m jazzed!

I’ll be splitting time between Idaho and Asia. My address stateside will be our Boise home: 904 E Washington, Boise, ID 83712, (208) 345-0595.

The project office in China is in the capital of Yunnan. When you get to eastern Asia look me up: Yunnan Representative Office, The Nature Conservancy, 26th Floor Xin Hua Office Tower, 8 East Ren Min Road, Kunming, Yunnan 650051, Peoples Republic of China. Tel and Fax: (86) 871-318-2793

Effective more or less immediately, my new email address will be the easiest way to contact me, especially overseas (we have a direct Internet line into the office): <>. Keep in touch!


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Botanical Products Committee Formed

Kristin Fletcher, Co-Chair INPS Botanical Products Committee

A quick trip to your local pharmacy or grocery store reveals the public’s burgeoning interest in botanical medicines. From ginkgo to ginseng, arnica to astragalus, echinacea to elderberry, shelves are packed with "wildcrafted" native plants processed into medicines and supplements. Unfortunately, the collection of these species is seldom monitored, and long-term impacts are unclear. Evidence suggests, however, that the harvest of some of the most popular species is not sustainable at current levels.

Consequently, the U.S. Forest Service is coordinating a nationwide conservation assessment on purple coneflower (Echinacea, especially E. angustifolia). And, in 1999, Regions 1 and 4 of the Forest Service (which include Idaho) issued a three-year moratorium on the personal and commercial use/collection of the following: bitterroot (Lewisia rediviva), lady’s slipper (all Cypripedium), lomatium (Lomatium dissectum), osha (all Ligusticum), sundew (all Drosera), and trillium or Beth root (Trillium ovatum).

This increasing concern prompted several participants at this year’s Idaho Rare Plant Conference to urge INPS to form a special committee to investigate the status of our flora. Kristin Fletcher (1247 Gale Mt. Rd/Pocatello, Idaho 83204 or and Christine Frisbee (2647 Kimberly Rd. East/Twin Falls, ID 83301-7976 or agreed to co-chair the new Botanical Products Committee with the help of Theresa Prendusi, Mark Mousseaux, Chris Murphy, Kelley Mitchell, Marie Kerr, Mering Hurd, and Mabel Jones. We are currently researching the issue and will update INPS members in upcoming articles in Sage Notes. In addition, we intend to organize a symposium in conjunction with the Idaho Rare Plant Conference within the next 2 years. Interested INPS members are urged to get involved. A good website for INPS members is United Plant Savers, a national organization out of Oregon focused on the responsible collection of native plants: <>.

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Douglas’ clover (Trifolium douglasii) Receives Formal Status in Idaho

Mike Hays, White Pine Chapter

East of Moscow a unique plant community is found in the Potlatch River drainage. An unusual riparian meadow with thin soils over basalt is host to many plant species that do not seem to belong there. Attention was brought to the meadow when the regional endemic, Calochortus nitidus (broad-fruit mariposa) was found there in 1993. Subsequent documentation and monitoring of that population revealed a plant community that seemed to belong more to the Palouse Prairie or canyon grassland to the west and south than to a riparian meadow in the mesic forest meadow of the Clearwater National Forest. Eventually a large, attractive clover emerged as a member of this unique community, and Trifolium douglasii (Douglas’ clover) was found on the Clearwater National Forest.

Investigating this species revealed very little information in from the literature or from knowledgeable botanists. A herbarium check at the University of Idaho revealed 23 collections from Idaho. Two of these were from at Craig Mountain in 1993. The other 21 vouchers were evenly spread from 1900 to the 1950s and 14 of these were from limited to Latah and Nez Perce Counties. Additional research and herbarium checks are certainly needed, but it was apparent that this regional endemic species had been overlooked and was in need of some formal designation and tracking.

At the 2000 Idaho Rare Plant Conference, Douglas’ clover Trifolium douglasii was removed from the Review list where it had been placed in 1999 and added to the Global Priority 3 list. In Washington it is listed as Sensitive, while in Oregon it is S1–Critically Imperiled. The Oregon Natural History Program gives the species a Priority 1 designation.


Hitchcock’s "Flora of the Pacific Northwest" gives T. douglasii’s range as from Spokane County, Washington, to Baker County, Oregon, and adjacent Idaho. In Idaho it is currently known from Craig Mountain, Joseph Plains, and the Palouse Ranger District of the Clearwater National Forest. Other populations are probably known and will be reported now that the species is on the Global Priority 3 list. In Idaho, historic populations are known from Kootenai County south to Valley and Adams counties. There are even fewer populations in Washington where one extant and three historic occurrences are known.

The stronghold for Douglas’ clover appears to be in northeast Oregon. There are approximately 10 locations on the La Grande District of the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. Close by on the Umatilla/Union County line there is a large metapopulation of an estimated 30,000 stems spread over six miles2.


Douglas’ clover Trifolium douglasii is a nonrhizomatous perennial that generally stands 1 to 2 feet tall. The 3 leaflets are linear to oblong with finely toothed margins. The inflorescence of Douglas’ clover consists of a terminal, globose to ovoid head that is about 3 cm thick and up to 5 cm long. The heads consist of 50 to 200 densely packed reddish-purple flowers, which stand erect or spreading, with the lowest often reflexed. The individual flowers are 14-20 mm long. The oblique calyx is distinctive, with the upper pair of teeth broader than the lower three and conspicuously curved downward. The sinuses between the lateral teeth are deeper than those of the upper pair.



Douglas’ clover usually occurs within the open Ponderosa pine to Douglas fir forests, which form an interface between the mesic forests in Idaho and the grasslands of eastern Washington and Oregon in moist meadows and along stream courses where moisture is abundant in spring and early summer. These sites are often very xeric (dry) late in the season.

The largest population on the Clearwater National Forest is found in a broken meadow with thin soils over a basalt substrate. Edaphic (soil) factors preclude significant tree growth, but occasional pines occur on raised microsites and along the meadow’s margins. Some sporadic pockets of black cottonwood and aspen are present, while black hawthorn and willow patches are common along the stream and backwaters. Where soils are deep, dense pasture grasses dominate and species diversity is very low. In areas of thinner soils, unique plant communities may be found, consisting of some species that occur nowhere else on the forest. These species are either endemic, very uncommon, or represent habitats unusual for the Clearwater National Forest. Some of the noteworthy associate species are,

Broad-fruit mariposa Calochortus nitidus (GS3)*,

Sticky goldenweed Haplopappus hirtus var. sonchifolius (G3S1),

Leiberg’s tauschia Tauschia tenuissima (GS3),

Hyacinth brodiaea Brodiaea hyacinthina,

Burke’s larkspur Delphinium burkei,

Showy oniongrass Melica spectabilis,

Fox sedge Carex vulpinoidea,

Columbia sedge Carex aperta,

Fringed loosestrife Lysimachia ciliata,

Long-leaf evening-primrose Oenothera subacaulis,

Orange arnica Arnica fulgens,

Pepperwort Marsilea vestita,

Western mugwort Artemisia ludoviciana,

Water-plantain buttercup Ranunculus alismaefolius var. alismaefolius,

Common downingia Downingia elegans,

Prairie Junegrass Koeleria cristata,

Long-styled rush Juncus longistylus,

Baltic rush Juncus balticus var. balticus,

Pinewoods peavine Lathyrus bijugatus

Mule’s-ears and Wyethias amplexicaulis.


* G3: globally rare or uncommon but not imperiled

On slopes adjacent to the meadow, Bank monkeyflower (Mimulus clivicola) (State monitorS3) occurs.

Some oOther more common associates include:

Yarrow , Achillea millefolium

Cinquefoil , Potentilla gracilis

American bistort , Polygonum bistortoides

Common camas , Camassia quamash

Red besseya , Besseya rubra

Marsh speedwell , Veronica scutellata

Nettle-leaf horse-mint , Agastache urticifolia

Gairdner’s yampah , Perideridia gairdneri

Glaucous zigadenus , Zigadenus venenosus

Bog saxifrage , Saxifraga oregana

Old man’s whiskers , Geum triflorum

Western blue flag , Iris missouriensis

Oregon checker-mallow , Sidalcea orgeana

California danthonia , Danthonia californica

Hood’s sedge , Carex hoodii

Small-winged sedge , Carex microptera

Meadow sedge , Carex praticola

Thick-headed sedge , Carex pachystachya


and many others. This area is also interesting because three species of shooting star, Dodecatheon pulchellum, D.odecatheon cusickii, and D.odecatheon conjugens grow in close proximity. D. pulchellum blooms later and tends toof prefer the stream margins; D.odecatheon cusickii is more general in its distribution. D.odecatheon conjugens is very rare at this site and is restricted to the margin between the forest and the meadow.



The threats to Douglas’ clover have not been formally monitored: however, useful observations have been made. The Washington population was reduced by approximately half when a portion was cultivated. Plants exist only in natural meadow up to the edge of the cultivated field. Livestock graze the large Oregon populations. Concern about potential impacts on the species has resulted in alterations in management of the grazing allotment. Livestock are only allowed in the vicinity of the populations for a short time before being moved to other locations. The short-term impacts thus far seem to be minor and are not detrimental to the populations.

The Palouse populations are also grazed. One population on private ground is grazed heavily and consists of only a few (probably less than 25) plants along a stream. Few native species can be found. Another population is found on adjacent private property. The private portion of the meadow is severely grazed, while across the fence on Federal land a lush moist meadow community is found. Here the Douglas’ clover population is very small due to the limited area, but the habitat is of high quality. The last population is scattered over a couple miles in a thin-soiled broken riparian meadow. Here the plants are sparse, but widely distributed. An estimated 100-300 plants may occur. The meadow is grazed, however the best habitat has shallow and rocky soil, supporting only sparse pasture grasses. As a result Douglas’ clover along with many other native meadow and prairie species form a unique and healthy plant community. Five years ago the rotation of livestock in this allotment was altered to allow cattle on this meadow only after mid-September. This was an attempt to allow another rare species Calochortus nitidus (broad-fruit mariposa) to set seed before being trampled and possibly grazed by the livestock. Similarly, Douglas’ clover is expected to benefit through increased seed recruitment. Continued observations and hopefully formal monitoring will shed more light on the response of this species to various forms of management and other disturbances.

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Annie Alexander

Kristin Fletcher, Sah-Wah-Be Chapter

For centuries both men and women have struggled to understand the world around them. It is always hard and demanding work, but the efforts of many thoughtful women have too frequently languished in obscurity.

One of the most fascinating early naturalists is Annie Montague Alexander, born in 1867 to a wealthy family from the Hawaiian island of Maui. Annie was adventuresome as a child and loved to explore the family’s sugar cane plantations and the tropical wilderness around her.

While a teenager, she moved with her family to Oakland, California, and quickly developed an interest in fossils, which she discovered in the hills nearby. Annie had an uncanny knack for finding them and, at age 33, she discovered the first of many living and fossilized plant and animal species previously unknown to science.

As a young woman she traveled hundreds of miles on foot in Africa with her father and spent many summers in Alaska researching bears. Over time she became alarmed by how fast native bird and mammal species were disappearing in California.

An independently wealthy woman, she then established and funded several great California museums: the Museum of Paleontology, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, and the University of California Herbarium in Berkeley. Her own immense plant and animal collections became the backbone of these early museums’ displays.

In her early forties Annie met Louise Kellogg, and a lifelong friendship developed. Until Annie’s death at 83, the two women were inseparable companions. They collected plant and animal specimens throughout the West, including Idaho, and sent them back to the museums.

Discomfort and struggle seemed to spur them on, and an aging Annie wrote, "I consider the sixties a very appropriate period in one’s life to do field work—an out-of-doors quest that will always have . . . a certain charm and excitement."

Near the end of her long, full life she and Louise botanized for three months in Baja, camping and hiking throughout the rugged mountains and deserts. There, on December 29, she celebrated her 80th birthday still "a part of nature, footloose in the mountains" as she once said. She explored and collected for two more years before she died, leaving us her plant and animal specimens and her museums as a legacy of a passionate life well lived.


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Attitudes of an Early Botanist: A Note on Charles Geyer (1809-1853)

Bertie Weddell, White Pine Chapter

The nineteenth century German botanist Charles Geyer was thoroughly sympathetic to manifest destiny, the idea that it was the responsibility of Euroamericans to expand westward across North America, taming the frontier and subjugating its aboriginal inhabitants as they went. "Ere long," he wrote,

the hardy scattered emigrants both in Oregon and California will consolidate a government and appear on the theatre of nations, independent of all others. They will, by their enterprise and unceasing civil conquests, overcome successfully the heroic indolence of their Mexican neighbors, regenerate their political and social institutions, and form, in connection with the mother country, on that coast, a great western empire; an outpost of civilization, which, in time, will be the doom for the reckless despotism in the Old World (Geyer 1846:201).

This vision clearly left no room for Native Americans, whom Geyer viewed with little sympathy. Some of Geyer’s narratives are painful to read. He wrote of coming upon

a great number of men, women, and children. . . . [B]ut contrary to what I was used to, the tone in which I was spoken to, by two or three saucy-looking young men, especially by a half-blooded ferocious youngster, did not please me at all. When I asked for the road to Colville, he said he did not know, demanding in the same harsh voice sundry things, especially tobacco with every possible ill grace. At my refusal he changed his language to a still more offending manner. . . ; the rest not possessing the same boldness, joined in a kind of sneer peculiar to the Indian only (Geyer 1846:296, footnote).

The incident came to a close when Geyer showed the young men his pistol, which caused "the insolent half-breed" to change his behavior.

Geyer felt that the Nez Perce should have been more appreciative of missionary efforts to change their way of life.

By responding to the efforts of Mr. Spalding, and amassing property, it is unavoidable that the whole nation imbibes a degree of avarice, of which I justly accuse the Saptonas [Nez Perce]. Far from feeling grateful to the Mission and to their excellent teacher, they demand every thing gratuitously, and torment their instructor by that insolent haughtiness so peculiar to them (Geyer 1846:518, footnote).

As a botanist, Geyer was interested in how the Indians used native plants such as camas, biscuit root, and bitterroot. Yet he had little interest in seeing that way of life—based upon moving throughout a wide area to utilize these resources as they became available throughout the year—continue. He wrote that the Saptonas were

the only northerly tribe of the Indians, to my knowledge, with whom the missionaries have so far succeeded as to render, in eight years’ tuition only, the greater part of the tribe independent of hunting, by cultivating the soil, and rearing cattle and sheep. . . . Undaunted by the haughtiness of his pupils, [Spalding] overcomes all obstacles. He . . . persevered in making the poor creature understand that he must acquire property, to become independent of his hunting, and that property must be realized by rearing domestic animals and tilling the land (Geyer 1846:517).

Evidently, Geyer had no inkling of the fact that the livestock grazing and cultivation he so enthusiastically endorsed would lead to profound changes in the flora that he so assiduously collected.

Literature Cited

Geyer, C. A. 1846. Notes on the vegetation and general character of the Missouri and Oregon Territories, made during a botanical journey in the state of Missouri, across the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains, to the Pacific, during the years 1843 and 1844. London Journal of Botany 5:198-208, 285-310, 509-524.

Additional Reading

Cronon, W. 1983. Changes in the land: Indians, colonists, and the ecology of New England. Hill and Wang, New York. 241 pp.

Marshall, A. G. 1999. Unusual gardens: The Nez Perce and wild horticulture on the eastern Columbia Plateau. Pp. 173-187 in D. D. Goble and P. W. Hirt, eds., Northwest lands, northwest peoples: Readings in environmental history. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Wester, B. L. 1999. Land divided: Yakima tribal land use in the federal allotment era. Pp. 205-225 in D. D. Goble and P. W. Hirt, eds., Northwest lands, northwest peoples: Readings in environmental history. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

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Response to the Native Gardening Questionnaire

In a recent survey, we asked INPS members to respond to the following questionnaire:

1. What native species have you had luck with, or are especially pleased with?

2. Tell us what you like best about these plants.

3. How does one acquire these plants without exploiting wild populations?

4. What aspect of growing natives would you like to see covered in Sage Notes?

Replies to the first three questions are summarized in the chart below—please note that these are responses by INPS gardeners to an informal survey, not a list of species recommended by INPS. Replies to the fourth question provided ideas for future issues of Sage Notes.

Replies to the third question, acquiring native garden plants without exploiting wild populations, showed the ethical approach one would expect from members of a native plant society (see "Source" in the chart below). However, any article on native gardening should mention these considerations:

Collect wisely without depleting native populations:

follow INPS’ "1-in-20" rule (Sage Notes 21(1) Winter 1999): ". . . never collect more than one out of 20 plants. It means not collecting more than one plant until you have found at least twenty. Only if 20 are found should you consider collecting one plant. And 40 should be present before two are taken, and so on."

salvage plants from road or building construction

know which plants never to collect (orchids, listed species)

Ensure the plants’ pollinators are present and provide habitat within the general vicinity of your garden (read more about this in Vince Tepedino’s "Wild Bees and Floral Jewels" on p. X).

Collect seeds from the wild (instead of plants), following the 1-in-20 rule.

Buy native plants propagated from seed.

Use local genes—these plants are locally adapted and will not pollute local gene pools or introduce disease.

The best way to save rare native plants is to leave them in their natural community when possible.

Nor should the positive aspects of native gardening go unmentioned:

Once established, a native plant garden requires less watering, and the associated resources used in water treatment, delivery, etc.

Provides wildlife habitat, particularly for birds.

Provides educational opportunities.



INPS Members’ Favorites: Responses to Native Gardening Questionnaire


Responses from North Idaho

Common name

Scientific name



Douglas hawthorn Crataegus douglasii “The best: food for thermal cover, resting, & roosting, for wildlife.” Native plant nurseries.
Quaking aspen Populus tremuloides Excellent for wildlife. “ “
Ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa Excellent for wildlife. “ “
Roses Rosa spp. Excellent for wildlife. “ “
Cherry Prunus spp. Excellent for wildlife. “ “
Serviceberry Amelanchier alnifolia Excellent for wildlife. “ “
Snowberry Symphoricarpos albus Excellent for wildlife. “ “
Creeping Oregon grape Berberis repens Early yellow flowers & glaucous berries; evergreen. Seems to spread slowly; shape is “low and mounding.” Nurseries (note: B. aquifolium NOT the same)
Kinnikinnick Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Good ground cover for north Idaho.  
Bunchberry dogwood Cornus canadensis Good ground cover for north Idaho.  
Pearhip rose Rosa woodsii    
Arrowleaf balsamroot Balsamorhiza sagittata    
Bluebunch wheatgrass Agropyron spicatum    
Idaho fescue Festuca idahoensis    
Golden currant Ribes aureum Highly rated in White Pine Chapter list.* Wild-collected seed
Syringa Philadelphus lewisii Highly rated in White Pine Chapter list.* Wild-collected seed
Ninebark Physocarpus malvaceus Highly rated in White Pine Chapter list.* Wild-collected seed
Red columbine Aquilegia formosa Highly rated in White Pine Chapter list.* Wild-collected seed
Canada violet Viola canadensis Nice, but aggressive. Wild-collected seed
Mountain kittentails, Nuttall’s violet Synthyris missurica, Viola nuttallii “The 2 best native forbs.” Wild-collected seed
Lupine Lupinus polyphyllus Highly rated in White Pine Chapter list.* Wild-collected seed
Spiraea Spiraea spp.    
Clematis Clematis spp.    
Geranium Geranium spp.    
Bedstraw Galium spp.    
Chickweed Cerastium spp.    
Common camas Camassia quamash    
Hyacinth brodiaea Brodiaea hyacinthina    
Oregon iris Iris tenax    
Wild onion Allium spp.    
Wild ginger Asarum caudatum    
False Solomon’s seal Smilacina spp.    
Old man’s whiskers Geum triflorum var. ciliatum    
Prickly-headed poppy Papaver argemone    


Palouse area gardeners are invited to view the results of two years’ work to convert a lawn to native plants at the Forestry Sciences Lab in Moscow.

* "Native Plants of Northern Idaho for Landscaping and Restoration," a ten-page list of shrubs, trees, forbs, ferns and grasses, with helpful gardening information on each species. Available from White Pine Chapter, P.O. Box 8481, Moscow, ID 83843.

Also recommended: "Gardening with Native Plants of the Pacific Northwest" by Arthur Kruckeberg, University of Washington Press, 1997, and "Landscaping with Native Plants for the Inland Northwest" by Tonie Fitzgerald and Michael Terrell, a 45-page booklet with information on designing, landscaping, removing weeds, preparing soil, choosing grasses for unwatered areas, sources, and native plant collecting ethics. Available from Washington State University Cooperative Extension, 222 N. Havana, Spokane, WA 99202-4799, (509) 477-2048. $5.50.



Responses from South Idaho

Common name

Scientific name



Buffalo-grass Buchloe spp. Grows slowly & requires very little water. Wind River Seed
Blue grama Bouteloua gracilis Grows slowly & requires very little water. Wind River Seed
Indian ricegrass Oryzopsis hymenoides “My favorites so far.” Seeds
Bluebunch wheatgrass Pseudoroegneria spicatum “ “ Seeds
Sandberg’s bluegrass Poa sandbergii “ “ Seeds
Squirreltail Sitanion hystrix Native bunchgrasses: beautiful, easy, good for birds & insects. Salvage (road maintenance)**
Idaho fescue Festuca idahoensis “ “ Salvage
Large-fruited lomatium Lomatium macrocarpum   Seeds
Evening-primrose Oenothera strigosa “Weedy” native - easy & showy.  
Yarrow Achillea millefolium “Weedy” native - easy & showy.  
Fringecup Lithophragma spp. “Weedy” native - easy & showy.  
Sunflower Helianathus annuus “Weedy” native - easy & showy.  
Pearly-everlasting Anaphalis margaritacea Small attractive groundcover, requires little water, reproduces well (needs lots of room). INPS Plant Sale
Sagebrush Artemisia spp. Fun to watch grow from seed. Seed collected in Boise foothills
Great basin wildrye Elymus cinereus Beautiful, tall grass. Salvaged from road cut
Wild onion Allium spp. Easy to split/transplant.*  
Stonecrop Sedum spp. Easy to split/transplant.*  
Beardtongue Penstemon spp. Easy to split/transplant.* Good self-seeder once established.  
Clarkia Clarkia spp. Good self-seeder once established. Easily established from collected seed.  
Small-flowered blue-eyed Mary Collinsia parviflora Good self-seeder once established.  
Threadleaf phacelia Phacelia linearis Good self-seeder once established.  
Cleomella Cleomella spp. Good self-seeder once established.  
Biscuit-root Lomatium spp. Easily established from collected seed.  
Silky lupine Lupinus sericeus Easily established from collected seed (but other Lupinus spp. are not.). Good self-seeder once established.  
Phacelia Phacelia Easily established from collected seed.  
Red-osier dogwood Cornus stolonifera Grows well, spreads, attracts birds; has red stems in winter. Available commercially, or get a start from a rooting branch
Sphaeralcea Sphaeralcea munroana Showy flowers Seeds
Daisy Townsendia florifer Short-lived but seeds around Seeds
Wild onion Allium acuminatum   Seeds
Fern-leaf lomatium Lomatium dissectum Coming back nicely! Beautiful foliage. Seeds
Skullcap Scutellaria antirrhinoides Started from seed but it becomes rhizomatous & can be easily divided in spring. Cute little thing. Seeds
Pearhip rose Rosa woodsii Good for confined area; can take part shade. Seeds
Penstemon Penstemon cusickii, P. miser Showy, excellent possibilities as garden plants. Seeds
Penstemon Penstemon speciosa, P. acuminatus Beautiful but short-lived. Seeds
Sage Salvia dorrii Does well; nice shrublet. Dug it up
Smooth sumac Rhus trilobata Grows fast with little water. Buffalo Berry Farm
Oregon sunshine Eriophyllum lanatum Very short-lived but seeds around. Seeds



* If collecting from wild populations is done responsibly "it is better to use local material than risk bringing in something from a distant source. Once a person has plants established, they can serve as a local source for their own garden."

** "If salvaged within a week nearly all grass clumps may survive. Be sure to grab lots of the soil from which they were dislodged, for it contains the necessary mycorrhizal fungi as well as seeds of other ‘surprise’ spp. (native and exotic )."

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Anthriscus cacaulis (Bur Chervil) Replacing Star-thistle

Dr. Richard R. Old, Weed Specialist , Pullman, Washington

When I first got started in this business, Anthriscus cacaulis was restricted to moist shady sites, generally under the hawthorns. The plants were never more than 6-8 inches tall and would hardly have been considered weedy, due to their extremely limited ecologic amplitude. In the past few years the population has exploded, primarily due to a shift in ecologic amplitude. The same species is now not only displacing yellow star-thistle, it is doing so on shallow, rocky, south-facing slopes. Even more striking is the fact that on these open arid sites the plants are 2 feet tall! It has also become pernicious in more mesic to damp sites and now has one of the broadest ecologic amplitudes that I have ever seen a weed display.

My three possible scenarios are as follows:

1. It is the same species that we have had for many years but has undergone an adaptive genetic shift (completed it’s lag phase).

2. It is the same species as before, but we have a new introduction that is more aggressive, and has a broader ecologic amplitude.

3. It is a new species that has not yet been properly identified (this is a difficult genus taxonomically).

In any case, it is so widespread that eradication is not feasible and is such a recent problem that no control methods have been developed. The head-to-head competition with yellowstar would be a fabulous ecological study.

Dr. Old can be reached at (509) 332 2989 or

Dr. Old can be reached at (509) 332 2989 or

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The Genus Cypripedium. Philip Cribb. Timber Press, Portland, 1997.

Review by Mike Hays, White Pine Chapter

Cypripediums – The grandest and most august of the Orchidaceae, one great race which is supreme alike in the open and under cover, deserves full treatment by itself.

- Reginald Farrer (1919) in "The English Rock Garden."

"The Genus Cypripedium" by Philip Cribb provides a wonderful overview of the 45 species of that genus currently recognized worldwide. The lady’s slippers or moccasin flowers have been considered among the most beautiful and sought after orchids for centuries. The earliest records of growing these gems date back over 2,500 years to the time of Confucius in China. But Europeans brought modern interest to the forefront when the industrial revolution gave upper classes the time and resources to pursue such interests. The huge size of the slippers set them apart and fascinated growers and botanists for generations. They are so loved, in fact, that the only member of the genus in Britain has been reduced to a single guarded plant.

This wonderful book offers detailed sections on orchid morphology, life history, cytology, phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, ecology, uses, conservation, and cultivation. An extensive taxonomy section includes an artificial key and detailed descriptions of all 45 species. The sections on life history and ecology are especially good, and the cultivation section gives a species-by-species discussion of growing requirements and suitability that makes the reader want to get started.

The visuals are abundant: 26 paintings, 98 photos, 51 drawings, and 22 distribution maps. The drawings by Eleanor Catherine are excellent with artistic, yet realistic habit illustrations and highly detailed representations of individual floral features. The paintings by assorted artists can only be described as ‘stunning.’ These alone are worth the price of the book. The photos are highly variable in quality, with most being very good. Some of the Chinese species are only known from the type locality, and the fact that the book has been able to include photos of all of them is remarkable.

"The Genus Cypripedium" is a well written. The style is that is both engaging to the professional botanist and captivating to the lay person. No comparable book on these important orchids exists at present.

The following is taken from the back sleeve: Philip Cribb is curator of the Orchid Herbarium at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. He is the author of several books on orchids, including "The Genus Paphiopedilum" and, with co-author Ian Butterfield, "The Genus Pleione," both in this series. He has traveled widely in connection with his work and has studied Cypripedium in the wild on several trips to China in the past twenty years.


A Color Guidebook to Common Rocky Mountain Lichens. Larry St. Clair. M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, 1999.

Review by Roger Rosentreter, Pahove Chapter

"A Color Guidebook to Common Rocky Mountain Lichens" includes a wide variety of species, from the small, microlichens of granite boulders to the large showy genera that hang from trees. Most lichen books either do not include color photos or cover only the larger macrolichens, simply omitting the small crustose, but often showy, saxicolous (on rocks) species. With this guidebook, the amateur enthusiasts can now picture-key their collections or simply gain familiarity with lichens from a variety of substrates and Rocky Mountain habitats. This is the first of its kind for North America. However, like wildflower books that encompass large geographic areas, this text does not contain all the species one might encounter in the field. Technical lichen floras will need to be consulted for more detailed identification. The photographs are those of Steven and the late Sylvia Sharnoff, who deserve much of the credit for making this book a winner. I would recommend that all biologists and outdoor enthusiasts who live in or visit the West obtain a copy. I believe it will introduce more students and amateurs to lichens than any other book published to date by a North American lichenologist. Considering the cost of reproducing color photos and the wide geographic coverage of this book, it is a very good value.

Given the general nature of the guidebook, it is perhaps inconsistent not to include any common names for these organisms. This would add appeal for the novice in particular. The identification keys are straightforward and well written, but lack important details and omit the mention of similar species that could be encountered within the Rocky Mountains. Some of the common showy species are not included. For example, the bright sulfur-green crustose lichen, Acarospora chlorophana, which covers canyon walls throughout the Rocky Mountains, is omitted. In addition, there is no index to look for species which might be listed under another name. Serious lichen students will need to obtain additional technical lichen floras to satisfy their desire to name all the lichens they encounter.

"A Color Guidebook to Common Rocky Mountain Lichens" is well organized and is similar in format to the recently published "Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest" by Bruce McCune and Linda Geiser (reviewed in Sage Notes 20(2) Spring 1998 p. 13). In comparison, St. Clair’s guidebook contains equally good information on the usefulness of lichens as indicators of air quality, but much less on habitat, ecology, and taxonomy. Notes on similar species and the morphological characteristics used to distinguish among them would have improved the usefulness of this book. In addition, southern Rocky Mountain species are better represented than are the northern Rocky Mountains. The geographic range of a species is discussed briefly under the category, "substrate/habitat," though the descriptions are very general. "Common Rocky Mountain Lichens" is in paperback format but is well bound, and its 6-by-nine inch size makes it a true field guidebook.

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Calypso Chapter Chapter News

At the March meeting Tim Gerlitz of the North Idaho Mycological Society gave a talk on morels—where to look for them, how to avoid deadly look-alikes, and how to collect and store them. The April meeting featured a wonderful program on the creepy-crawlies and hoppers: snakes, skinks, lizards and relatives, frogs and toads. Our speaker was Jenny Taylor from the Forest Service. She brought a slide show and a handout.

Upcoming events:

May 21: Q’emelin Trails, Post Falls. Meet in parking lot next to Gazebo west of Post Falls Park at 1:00 PM.

July 8: Huff Lake field trip, Pend Oreille County, WA (five miles south of Nordman, ID). Meet at Priest River Ranger Station at 11:00 AM.

August 5: Roman Nose Lakes. Jill Blake will lead. Meet at parking lot at lower lake at 10:00 AM.

August 12: alternate date for Roman Nose Lakes.


Kinnikinnick Chapter Chapter News

Work at the arboretum took off with an April "Arbor Day at the Arboretum" event. High school students and 4H members planted a larch grove. Chapter members transplanted trees from Gold Creek and made wire tree guards. A work list is prepared for volunteer help during the summer.

Upcoming events.

May 20, meeting. Come and hear Valle Novak’s "Landscaping with Wild and Native Plants." Bonner County Extension Office, 10:00 AM.


Sah-Wah-Be Chapter Chapter News

Chapter members have an opportunity to participate in a long-term revegetation project at the Pocatello Zoo, beginning with identifying remnant native forbs and shrubs and pulling cheatgrass (remaining cheatgrass may be sprayed). Later, we may be able to plant chosen natives. The site is a small portion of the zoo and is a realistic task if we tackle it with energy and several sets of hands over several years. Members are encouraged to get involved with the city’s plan to remove several of the octogenarian cottonwood trees from the park/zoo area. Parts of the trees are hazardous (growing over softball bleachers, parking lots, etc.), but that doesn’t necessarily justify cutting the whole tree down. Members are encouraged to go visit the trees and see for yourselves what the brouhaha is about and send your suggestions to the city.

Upcoming events:

May 21. Field trip to see a surprise pond in the lava flow north of McCammon on property owned by the ISU biology department. Meet at 9:00 AM near the bison by the Idaho Museum of Natural History to carpool. First we will stop here and there, roam, or enjoy lunch. The second leg of the trip is on the Centennial Trail across the street and river from the hot pools at Lava Hot Springs. And after that...many opportunities! Call Ruth Moorhead (208) 233-5011.

June 3. Meet at 9:00 AM near the bison to carpool to Formation Springs State Park north of Soda Springs. Kristin Fletcher hopes to have some helpers for this one. Call Kristin (208) 232-6736.

June 18. Meet at 9:00 AM at the Fort Hall truck stop on I-15 for a re-run of last year’s outing into the Fort Hall bottoms, organized by Cleve Davis. Call Cleve (208) 237-0246.

July 15. Field trip to Mike Spence Canyon near Gilroy. More details later—call Ruth (208) 233-5011.

August 5-6: From the Top of Targhee to the Fens of Driggs—a multi-stage adventure. Much planning to be done. More details later. Glenn’s in charge: (208) 234-0537.

September 9. Meet at 9:00 AM near the bison to carpool to St. Anthony Dunes. YES, we can find them! Yes, there will be something left to see there! NO, the hunters won’t shoot us! More details later. Call Ruth (208) 233-5011.

October 14. Long trip to Museum of the Rockies, Bozeman, Montana. Hey...sometimes to appreciate Idaho fully, we need to see what’s next door as well! With luck, there will still be fall color to enjoy on the way. Call Ruth (208) 233-5011.

January 13: Hogander’s Haul up the trail to Robbers’ Roost, looking for plants to identify by their WINTER characters! Details to be developed. Call Geoff (208) 232-3437.

Wood River Chapter Chapter News

According to Carol Blackburn, our "member at large," the first wildflower in Blaine County was spotted near the upper end of Magic Reservoir on March 25—many Anderson’s Buttercups, and a few very purple clumps of penstemon leaves, which resembled flowers when seen at a distance. The rest of the bloom can’t be too far behind!

In order to be informed about local Wood River Chapter activities, contact Jo Ann Robbins at (208) 788-5585 days. Occasional field trips and activities are publicized to the active membership in the area.

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News and Notes

Native Plant Society of Oregon Meeting at Malheur June 23-25. The rare plant meeting will be held on Friday and several field trips are scheduled for Saturday. Dr. Barbara Ertter, Curator of Western American Botany, Jepson Herbarium, UC Berkeley, will speak on Friday evening on "Biogeography of Iran and the American West" and Saturday on "Floristic Surprises in North America." Register by sending $5 to Stu Garrett, 1501 NE Med Center Drive, Bend, OR 97701. For accommodations and meals, contact the Malheur Field Station yourself, at: HC 72, Box 260, Princeton, OR 97721 (541) 493-2629 or <>.

A New National Geographic book on healing plants. "Nature’s Medicine," by Joel Swerdlow, contains information on ancient and modern healing systems, the relationship of plants to medicinal drugs, plants that stimulate the human immune system, and specific biological functions and how healing plants affect them.

Southwest Exhibit at College of Idaho. This is a series of presentations and exhibits at Albertson College of Idaho’s Orma Smith Museum of Natural History, called "An Enduring Presence: Cultural Continuity and Change Among Peoples of the Desert Southwest." For information, call archives at (208) 459-5230 or visit the Albertson College web site at <>.

Fall Mushroom Foray to Northern Idaho. The Palouse Mycological Association has put together a website announcing this year’s North Idaho Mycological Association 2000 Foray in October. You can view the website at Please feel free to pass the information along to anyone who might be interested in attending or learning more.

Botrychium Symposium. Moonworts will be highlighted at this summer’s Botanical Society of America’s national meeting on August 8 at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland. See <> for details.